Wednesday, May 20, 2020

One of the most important themes in the play Macbeth by...

One of the most important themes in the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare comes from one of the last lines in Act 1, Scene 1 of the play. The three witches speak this line Fair is foul, and foul is fair (1:1:12), shortly before they disperse and it becomes a prophecy and an secret warning throughout the rest of the play. This one line becomes more and more important as the play unfolds beginning even with Macbeth’s opinions at the beginning of the story and lasting throughout the play with the constant themes of deception and doing evil in the name of good. We see that even from the beginning the unfolding events and themes can all be predicted through these first few lines in Act 1 Scene 1, events and themes that surround†¦show more content†¦All of Macbeths titles of Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor and King of Scotland came by foul means just for the witches benefits. Macbeth became King of Scotland after murdering King Duncan which the witches first put in his mind that he will be king. Macbeth has a ruthless way of advancing in life. You notice this more in King Duncans statement Theres no art/ to find the minds construction in the face (1:4:11-12). Fair is foul and foul is fair is also, found in the actions of Lady Macbeth and Macbeth after the murder of king Duncan. Although Macbeth has the appearance of a good and generous host (fair), he was secretly plotting king Duncans death (foul). Which was very foul. Also, Lady Macbeths plan of the murder shows the twisted atmosphere they have created and how twisted she is. Both a woman and a host, she should be the model of grace and poise. She is described, however, as a fiendlike queen (5:6:69) and exhibits a cold, scheming mentality. In addition, there porter or door man likens the place to the house of the devil. Which also shows a foul and evil environment. This implies that even with its pleasant seat, (1:6:1) its a sinister and evil place. It is also interesting that Macbeth is unable to say a single prayer to bless himself after murdering king Duncan. It is strange or foul that heShow MoreRelatedThe Start of Evil: Lady Macbeth by William Shakespeare1009 Words   |  5 PagesStart of Evil Macbeth is a play written by William Shakespeare in the 1600 century. It is one of Shakespeare’s most well known tragedies, and continues to be studied to this day. It is a dark and gloomy play, as the main character, Macbeth, gets a taste for evil and kills the king of Scotland, King Duncan, in order to become king himself. After this moment there is a rapid increase of evil in him, as he starts to kill more and more people who upset him or are a threat to the throne. One of the play’sRead MoreMacbeth Equivocation Essay1003 Words   |  5 PagesThe story of William Shakespeare’s Macbeth is a classic one of betrayal and destiny. One of the major themes of the play is the use of equivocation to create ambiguity. The definition of equivocation from the Oxford dictionary is: the use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself; prevarication. The very definition of equivocation contains the use of ambiguity, thus making the two v ery connected in terms of the story of the play. Equivocation is used multiple timesRead MoreMacbeth (Witches Effect) Essays1124 Words   |  5 PagesHow important are the witches to Macbeth? Discuss the effects of the witches on character, plot, themes and audience. In the play of ‘Macbeth by William Shakespeare the witches have an important effect on Macbeth, the characters, the plot, the theme and the audience. They help construct the play and without them it would have been a totally different story line. The three weird sisters influence Macbeth in his acts, they effect characters lives, orientate the plot, they are related to most ofRead MoreThemes Of Shakespeare s Macbeth970 Words   |  4 PagesThemes of Macbeth (Importance of Act Four Scene Three) What are themes? A theme is a subject of talk, a piece of writing, a person’s thoughts or a main topic. Themes are what make a story or play meaningful. Themes often times have morals or lessons that teach the readers something useful. In the play Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, has several different important themes that influences readers to this day. In Jarold Ramsey’s book Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, he mentions one of theRead MoreTheme Of Paradox In Macbeth1021 Words   |  5 PagesMacbeth is a tragedy play written by William Shakespeare that is about a one man called Macbeth who ruins an entire country on the advice of the three witches. Shakespeare uses a variety of literary devices such as paradox, metaphor, irony and foreshadowing to help the development of the characters in this case Macbeth. Shakespeare uses numerous types of literary techniques to make the tragic play more appealing and as a result convey the themes of the play. In the initial acts of the play, MacbethRead MoreMacbeth Literary Essay : Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair1297 Words   |  6 PagesMacbeth Literary Essay: â€Å"Fair is foul and foul is fair† In the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the characters are often mislead by the impression of reality. The quote â€Å"fair is foul and foul is fair† (Shakespeare 1.1.12), is said by the three witches. This quote is very significant, as it is an elaborate theme throughout the play. Also, the word fair means good, and foul means evil. Fair is foul and foul is fair is a theme that demonstrates how appearances often differs from reality. ThisRead MoreAnalysis Of The Tragedy Of Macbeth1207 Words   |  5 Pages The ‘Tragedy of Macbeth’ (also known as ‘Macbeth’) is a play written by William Shakespeare and it was first performed in 1606. This play presents plenty of themes through the action and dialogue throughout the play. Although the play is universally and most commonly referred to as the dark tragedy presented by Shakespeare. The most common themes that were introduced to the audience tend to be femininity versus masculinity, pride and honor, the role of supernatural, temptation and evil and a lotRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth, Othello, And King Lear1479 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth, was the last of four great tragedies, including Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear, written during the Elizabethan Era. Herbert Courson states the play as, â€Å" â€Å"a powerful even for the mature Shakespeare. [which]... demands that we share its experience intensely, that we fell the strength of Macbeth’s thirst for kingship, the force of La dy Macbeth’s persuasions, the anguish of Macbeth’s struggle before the murder, and the impact of nature’s retribution after the murder†Read MoreEssay on Images and Imagery in Macbeth939 Words   |  4 PagesImagery in Macbeth      Ã‚  Ã‚   Darkness, disorder, mayhem, fear, guilt, and hypocrisy are all important themes carried throughout William Shakespeares Macbeth by the effective use of imagery in reference to ill-fitting clothing, blood, and light verses dark. Imagery in this play tiptoes its way though every scene to create a malevolent atmosphere of shame and false pretenses.    The contrast between light and dark during Macbeth clearly relates to the conflict between good andRead More Shakespeares Macbeth and Hamlet as Tragic Heroes Essay893 Words   |  4 PagesMacbeth and Hamlet as Tragic Heroes      Ã‚   William Shakespeare has written many literary works - from his sonnets to his plays, each has its own individual characteristics.   One popular characteristic that comes from his plays is the tragic hero.   The audience can always relate to the tragic hero and the many trials he faces.   Macbeth and Hamlet are just two of Shakespeares plays that involve the tragic hero.   Through their nobility, tragic flaws, and dignity Macbeth and Hamlet prove to be

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparing Adolf Stalin And Adolf Hitler And Hitler

Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are 2 notoriously known people in world history. Both Stalin and Hitler are known for the great number of deaths they have caused. Although both men have totally different reasons on why they killed so many people their ways of leadership are somewhat alike. Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin both use propaganda as a technique to get people to support them. Using propaganda shows the public what they want to hear and see, even if it’s not true they use this method to trick people into thinking they are going to help and make life better for them. Nevertheless, this is a tactic that has worked for both leaders during their time. They would manipulate the truth to the people of their country to gain their trust.†¦show more content†¦Hitler represented the Nazi party they wanted to kill off has many Jews as he could, they believed if they did this Germany would recovery from world war 1, also, they believed in a national community formed by so called racially pure people the Nazi party believed there should only be pure Germans. Blonde hair and blue-eyed Germans, they felt if you weren’t a pure German you weren’t a person. Furthermore, both leaders entered their reign of power very differently joseph Stalin’s ideas for his country where already widely known prior to his leadership. For that reason, becoming leader of the Soviet Union was not as difficult for joseph Stalin. Stalin gained his power within a month. Adolf Hitler on the other hand had way more difficulties gaining power then joseph Stalin did. Adolf’s fight for power and leader ship lasted almost 20 years. In addition to Adolf’s long fight for power, Adolf started from zero with his political ideas, half of the population did not agree with his views and ideas because they were in humane. In some ways their differences out way there, similarities. Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler are the names behind too of the greatest genocid es. Both occurring in the 20th century. Each genocide has a striking number of deaths, Joseph Stalin has at least 2 million deaths on record. Stalin has killed far moreShow MoreRelatedComparing Joe Stalin and Adolf Hitler Essay499 Words   |  2 PagesJoseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler, these two men have forever changed the history of the world. Josef Stalin or Uncle Joe Stalin as his country knew him, was seen to the Russian people as a savior and a heroic leader. Adolf Hitler was known as the `Father of the Final Solution, which killed nearly six million of the sick, gypsies, Jews, homosexuals, and handicapped. Stalin and Hitler were both evil men who gained their power by manipulating others to get what they wanted. Both men were cold and calculatingRead MoreComparing The Way Of Adolf Hitler, A Fascist Dictator, And Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin1629 Words   |  7 PagesTo analyze the differences in the way Adolf Hitler, a fascist dictator, and Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin, a com munist dictator, controlled their countries and made political decisions, we have to learn what Fascism and Communism are. We must also look at how Hitler and Stalin came to power, as well as how they controlled their government. Starting with Fascism, it is basically when the state is the supreme power. Nothing gives orders above the state, and the state gives all orders. It is a strongRead More Comparing Dictators Adolf Hitler versus Benito Mussolini versus Joseph Stalin1660 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will compare the three leaders who are famous for their dictatorship and totalitarianism during the 30s decade-Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin. Totalitarianism is when a government gains absolute and total control over the country, including the freedom of thought and will as well as the citizen?s lifestyle, no other political parties are allowed and has the concept where the country is most important. The difference and similarity between their ideology, usage of propagandaRead MoreJoseph Stalin : The Dictator Of The Ussr1426 Words   |  6 PagesJoseph Stalin English II Mrs. Galloway Dylan Kronk 24 February 2017 Dylan Kronk English II Galloway 6th 24 February 2017 Joseph Stalin (Rough Draft) Joseph Stalin was the dictator of the USSR, formerly known as Russia. Joseph Stalin did many good things that made the USSR what it is today. The USSR is one of the world’s many super powers. Joseph Stalin was a dictator who forcefully kept control, killed his people, persecuted, and westernized Russia. Although Stalin did someRead MoreEuropa Europa and Olivier Olivier Analysis1534 Words   |  7 Pagesscene with Hitler. Although Solomon is a hero to the Germans for what he had done in the front lines, nothing still escapes from who he is. Even Adolf Hitler as shown in the nightmare can not escape condemnation by admitting he is a Jew although he is treated as the hero of the German people. All of the efforts Solomon has done to survive and hide his Jewish identity are due to the betrayal of relationship between Hitler and Stalin as depicted in the ballet scene of Hitler and Stalin. Read MoreAnalysis Of Stanley Milgram s Perils Of Obedience Essay1709 Words   |  7 Pagesexpecting them to listen without question. We ve learned that disobedience connotes with â€Å"being bad† when this is not necessarily the case. Many adults today still carry these teaching into their adulthood. It is no wonder why leaders such as Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin easily manipulated the minds of masses for their own personal and political agenda. Still, many questions still remain prevalent as to how an individual reaches his or her decision on obedience in a distressing environment. Inspired byRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm Essay2088 Words   |  9 Pagesnovella ‘Animal Farm’ by George Orwell, which is an allegory that is based on events that happened during and after the Russian Revolution. Orwell used animals to represent historical figures such as Joseph Stalin, the totalitarian ruler of the time. Napoleon, who was the pig that represented Stalin , used violence and propaganda to help him take control of the farm, and used the animals’ fear of him to motivate them into following his orders. The other animals did not question Napoleon’s authority outRead MoreSimilarities Between Nazism And Stalinism2082 Words   |  9 Pagesfit into to the utopic image created by Stalin and Hitler would be forcibly removed from each society by the use of violence and terroristic tactics. As Nazism and Stalinism rose to power, they implemented a system of inclusion and exclusion by creating an image that all nationals should aspire to. Poland was a victim of both regimes’ attempts at utopia and was nearly completely lost to the annals of history. A serious comparison can be made by comparing Stalinist Russia and Nationalist GermanyRead MoreSoviet Union And The United States From A Totalitarianism Perspective1706 Words   |  7 Pagesalternatives that would relieve them of their troubles. At the time, communism was an alluring option to many Eastern European countries, promising results of unification and equality, but in Adolf Hitler’s perspective it would not produce a completely authentic German nation-state. As a result, the Hitler and Nazis aimed to discredit its competitors and garner support for creating a German â€Å"living space†. To simplify, in 1933 the Reichstag, a parliamentary building in Berlin, was set aflame by aRead MoreNeil Burger s Divergent Film Series And George Orwell s Book 1984 1279 Words   |  6 Pagesalready. In being a Divergent, Tris is considered an outlier immediately as it is a rare case and makes her doomed from the very start as well. Tris says, â€Å"Everyone knows where t hey belong except for me,† in the beginning of Divergent, in addition to comparing herself to factionless in the end, supporting her sense of being displaced from the norm since everyone else has an absolute faction. It is no surprise that a protagonist’s belief that something is terribly wrong with the society provokes a sense

Heavy Metal Music and Society Grunge free essay sample

The musical genre that we chose for our assignment was Grunge, also referred to as The Seattle Sound. 2. What time period does it correspond to? The time period that Grunge corresponds to was the asss. Despite many influences on grunge that rooted back to as early as the asss, the Grunge explosion was In the early asss. Some of the founding bands of Grunge. Such as Soundboards. Nirvana, and Alice In Chains, actually formed in the ass.Many members of Grunge bands, such as Pearl Jam, also had their own bands in the asss through the early asss, such as Mother Love Bone and Temple Of The Dog. 3. Did this type of music reflect the culture of society at the time? How? Egg. Has it addressed social issues of injustice (race, gender, wealth, poverty, war, etc. )? Grunge did not reflect the culture of society at the time, because It was Just starting to get noticed. 4. Did this type of music influence the culture of society at the time? How? Yes, it influenced the culture of some society at the time. Grunge influenced those who were looking for a new type of music and a new fashion. Most people who followed Grunge usually followed it because they didnt care for the other genres out at the time.People started to follow this fashion as Grunge expanded. 5. Has it introduced a new type of music to society? Egg. Beginning of rock and roll. Grunge was the introduction of a genre composed of heavily distorted guitars, different song dynamics, and anger in the lyrics. Punk bands such as The Clash and The Sex Pistols were an influence on many Grunge bands in how they often addressed social issues and opposed society at their concerts. And early Heavy Metal Bands such as Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin had an influence on the musical style of Grunge.Grunge was the first genre to combine the two. 6. Has it influenced a certain generation? How? Egg. Teenagers. The majority of people who listened to Grunge were in their late teens, even into their twenties. Grunge influenced a slacker attitude. Most Grunge listeners were indifferent about what others thought about them. This attitude compliments the fashion of the Grunge era, which represents the slacked attitude. Also, Grunge sometimes influenced fans to take a stand against society. 7. What are some of the musicians fit into this category of music?Neil Young was often defined as The Godfather Of Grunge but he was more Of an influence On what Grunge turned out to be. The three bands that were the first successful Grunge bands were Soundboards, Pearl Jam, and Nirvana. Pearl Jams debut album, Ten, (released August 27, 1991) was a major hit in the Grunge era, and also the first successful Grunge album. Nirvanas second studio album, Nevermore, (released on September 24, 1 991 ) was considered by some the best Grunge album ever, making Nirvana an overnight sensation.Soundnesss third studio album, Butterfingers, released on October 8, 1991) was their first breakthrough album as a Grunge band. Other Grunge bands of the asss consisted of Alice In Chains, Stone Temple Pilots, Mudstone, The Melvin, Green River, Screaming Trees, Hole, and Smashing Pumpkins. 8. Fashion and trends of the time that correspond to the musical genre chosen. The Grunge fashion composed of flannel, long hair, jeans (baggy, ripped or faded), sunglasses and Doc Marten boots. This style resembled the slacker/ indifferent attitude of Grunge, showing that the people didnt care about what they wore.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Sikhism Essays (1531 words) - Religion, Sikhism, Theism, Punjab

Sikhism SIKHISM Sikhism is a Religion of uniqueness. It has beliefs from two other religions; Hinduism and Islam (Borak 53). This religion is very scarce in the United States. The main area for Sikhs is in the Northwest India (Borak 53). I had never heard of this religion before, so that is the main reason why I chose to study this religion. I have found it very interesting and different. The Sikhs have many unique qualities. Sikhism dates back to a long time ago. Making it more modern, it was introduced near the closing of the 15th Century (Borak 53). Guru Nanak Dev originated it, now making it a minority group. The Sikhs are found generally around northwest India, or Punjab, but can also be found anywhere in the world (Borak 53). Sikhism has a very rare formation. This religion is a mixture of two other religions, known as Hinduism and Islam. This joining together is known as syncretism (Hopfe 188). The Hindus and Islams began to mix and some thought of joining the two together. Not everyone agreed so they decided to make a new religion with practices from both religions while still keeping Hinduism and Islam separate religions (Borak 54). From the Hindus, the reincarnation of Jesus was put into practice for this newly accepted religion and also they kept ?The True Name? sacred because He can do anything. One true God is used also as a practice, coming from the Islam beliefs (Hopfe 188). Its originality helps make this religion special in its own unique way. The Sikhs have many of their own beliefs but also the ones coming from Hinduism and Islam. The opening lines in their Holy Book, or Guru Granith Sahib, state ?There is one supreme eternal reality; the truth; immanent in all things; creator of all things; immanent in creation. With out fear and without hatred; not subject to time; beyond birth and death; self revealing?(Philosophy). This statement summarizes their basic teachings, also adding equality to their beliefs (Hopfe 198). They believe every human is of the same sex even though chastity is not allowed. Women are equal to all men. Sikhs do not believe in burning women, women wearing veils, or marriages to widows. There is no separation by creed, color, race, or sex (Philosophy). All people are equal. Sikhs believe to worship in temples known as Gurdwaras, also meaning Gateway to the Guru. Daily attachment to God helps you become closer to Him, believes Narm Marg (Philosophy). Also, faith grows within the community while worshipping at the Gurdwaras.(Richards, 198) Serving others is their center of worship (Richards 198). Among the Sikhs are three other religions, The Udasis, Sahajdharis, and the Singhs. The Udasis is an order of Holy Men who follow the same practices as Buddhist, Hindus, and Jainism. They are celibate and wear a yellow coarse garment like Buddhist monks or go naked like Jain monks. They have one possession, a begging bowl and they are also poorly shaven (Hopfe 180). On the other hand, Sahajdaris are very reasonable and very clean- people. They reject the militancy of the Sikhs (Hopfe 192). The Singhs are just a break off of the Sikhs. Sikhs believe in God but they worship by Gurus (Richards 198). Guru means leader (Hopfe 189). They also believe in Guru Granith Sahib and other writing by the ten Gurus. They do not believe in any other religion, though (Richards 198). God is the creator, maintainer, and distructer who can not take human form (Philosophy). He appears only in spirit by believing and can not appear in human (Richards 198). Their five cardinal vices are Kam, or lust, Krodah, or anger, Lobh, or greed, Moh, or wordly attachment, and Ahankar, or pride (Philosophy). Some of their beliefs and vices are the same as Catholics. Sikhism doesn't really have any hierarchy that I could find but they do have certain positions. There are ten Gurus who would serve as our priest do, but now they worship what the Gurus taught and by the Scripture (Hopfe 189). Gurus were the leaders. (See pages seven for a listing of the ten Gurus.) Their first Guru who was chosen April 5, 1469, the day Sikhism formed

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Language and Misinterpretations

Language and Misinterpretations Language comprehension is an important tool of communication. Through language, human beings are able to exchange information amongst themselves, form relationships, comprehend, and express their feelings. Consequently, language is a vital component of human understanding.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Language and Misinterpretations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The issue of misinterpretation in language use is very important because it has the potential to affect communication in a big way. Misinterpretations can result in severed relationships and in other cases they can offend people. The complexities of the differences between languages are responsible for contradicting statements and unintended interpretations. Most cases of lingual misinterpretations depend on cultural differences and ambiguity. Languages are often interpreted differently by several individuals. Consequently, the issue of †˜meaning to whom’ takes centre stage in language use. In some instances, the usage of some words may differ depending on lingual factions. This paper explores language use with respect to misinterpretation and meanings. The issue of misinterpretation in language use is tricky because it is likely to have several valid interpretations of one utterance. Therefore, several listeners might have different interpretations in a single case of language use. The concept of having a ‘correct’ or ‘incorrect’ interpretation is complicated by the fact that one utterance can have several valid interpretations. Interpretations depend on their interpreter. For instance, misinterpretations depend on the status of the listener. In America, interpretations are mostly dependent on racial factions such as African American, Asian American, or Native American. Misinterpretations are a product of a speaker’s intention. Nevertheless, in some cases a speaker might hav e more than one intention. An utterance can bear characteristics of motive, desire, and reason. All these factors are tied to cultural backgrounds and resulting interpretations. The fact that a speaker’s motive might be in conflict with his/her desires makes things complicated for listeners. Racial tensions in America are a common source of misinterpretations. After considering all these facts, it is clear that misinterpretations are part of communication. Consequently, the ‘correct’ interpretation of any language use can vary.Advertising Looking for critical writing on communication strategies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A listener’s chances of misinterpretation are dependent on a number of pre-conditions. A listener is only able to interpret an utterance based on his/her â€Å"background knowledge, intelligence and imaginative power, degree of attention and interest, social relation s to the speaker and actual social interaction with the latter, willingness to think over what has been said and what follows from that† (Odlin, 2008). During language use, it is likely for a listener to draw multiple conclusions from a single utterance. Therefore, the issue of misinterpretation easily applies to listeners during language use. It is also important to note that a listener might have a wide range of valid interpretations when it comes to language use. When discussing the issue of misinterpretations, it is important to note that the context of a particular utterance matters. The issue of ‘meaning to whom’ is rarely analyzed by linguists. The multiplicity of contexts in communication makes it difficult to analyze the issue of what a particular utterance means to diverse groups of people. Nevertheless, the task of deeply analyzing utterances is often relegated to observers and other linguistic experts. Linguistic analysts often investigate the concept of ‘meaning to whom’ using several considerations. The chances of an interpreter avoiding instances of ‘misinterpretations’, depend on his/her familiarity with speakers and listeners. For instance, America uses English as the standard language of communication. However, English speakers are likely to understand utterances in relation to their individual backgrounds. A linguistic analyst can have difficulties analyzing what an utterance means to a Mexican-American without a slight understanding of the Spanish language. Consequently, to reduce instances of misinterpretations the American system uses hyphenation. Hyphenation offers linguistic experts a chance to make interpretations using the unique traits of listeners and speakers. Each cultural group creates meanings in its unique way. Therefore, even though all Americans speak one language their interpretations might differ. The issue of interpretation encourages both speakers and listeners to use cultural anthropologies when making deductions. Nevertheless, hyphenations are more effective when analyzing utterances compared to an analysis of written texts (Leiser, 2009). In written texts, accents do not matter. However, in utterances accents form a big part of interpretation.  An example of how the concept of ‘meaning to whom’ is manifested is in the use of the word ‘squaw’. The word squaw means different things to different Native American communities.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Language and Misinterpretations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, the word has different interpretations within Canada and the United States. For the Algonquian speaking people, the word squaw refers to either a woman or girl. Over the years, the term squaw has come to be interpreted in different ways by different people. Even though the origins of the word indicate that the word i nitially meant ‘woman’, other Native American communities have claimed that the word refers to ‘vagina’. Linguists agree that the change of meaning of the word ‘squaw’ is a misinterpretation. Nevertheless, the resulting misinterpretation has turned the word squaw into a derogatory term. In addition, some Native American communities have renamed places that have the word squaw in them. Although the word squaw initially meant one thing to the early Native Americans, it has come to mean something else to the current generation. References Leiser, R. G. (2009). Exploiting convergence to improve natural language  understanding. Interacting with Computers, 1(3), 284-298. Odlin, T. (2008). Language transfer: Cross-linguistic influence in language learning.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Definition and Examples of Reporting Verbs in English

Definition and Examples of Reporting Verbs in English In English grammar, a reporting verb is a  verb (such as say, tell, believe, reply, respond, or ask) used to indicate that discourse is being quoted or paraphrased. Its also called a  communication verb. [T]he number of  reporting verbs  that can be employed to mark  paraphrases  is around a dozen, author Eli Hinkel reported, and  they can be learned with relative ease while working on a writing assignment (e.g.,  the author says, states, indicates, comments, notes, observes, believes, points out, emphasizes, advocates, reports, concludes, underscores, mentions, finds), not to mention phrases with similar textual functions such as  according to the author, as the author states/indicates, in the authors view/opinion/understanding,  or  as noted/stated/mentioned. Tenses and Their Uses Most often, reporting verbs, such as seen in fiction to show dialogue, are in the past tense, because as soon as a speaker says something, it is literally in the past.   George Carlin illustrates this in this example of reported speech: I went to a bookstore and  asked  the saleswoman, Wheres the self-help section? She  said  if she  told  me, it would defeat the purpose. To contrast with  words spoken once, putting a reporting verb in the present tense is used to show an adage, something that someone has said in the past and continues to say or presently believes. For example: She always says how hes not good enough for you. Next, a reporting verb may be in the historical present tense (to refer to an event that took place in the past). The historical present is often used for dramatic effect or immediacy, to place the reader right in the scene. The technique should be used sparingly, so you dont create confusion, but its use can make for a dramatic lead to a story, for example. The year is 1938, the place, Paris. The soldiers smash shop windows and run through the street  and yell...   You also use reporting verbs in  the literary present tense (to refer to any aspect of a work of literature). This is because no matter what year you watch a particular movie or read a book, the events always unfold in the same way. The characters always say the same thing in the same order. For example, if youre writing on Hamlet, you might write, Hamlet shows his anguish when he speaks his To be soliloquy. Or if youre reviewing fantastic movie lines, you might write, Who can forget when Humphrey Bogart says  to Ingrid Bergman, Heres looking at you, kid  in Casablanca?   Dont Overuse Reporting Verbs When youre writing dialogue, if the identity of a speaker is clear from the context, such as in a back-and-forth conversation between two people, the reporting phrase is often omitted; it doesnt have to be used with  each line of dialogue, just enough times to make sure the reader doesnt get lost as far as whos speaking, such as if the conversation is long or if a third party interjects. And if the lines of conversation are short, using a bunch of he said she said gets distracting for the reader. Its more effective to leave them out in this instance. Overusing creative substitutions for, said can also get distracting for the reader. A reader goes by said quickly and doesnt lose the flow of the dialogue. Be judicious in using substitutions for said.   The line of dialogue belongs to the character; the verb is the writer sticking his nose in, wrote Elmore Leonard in  The New York Times.  But  said  is far less intrusive than  grumbled, gasped, cautioned, lied. I once noticed Mary McCarthy ending a line of dialogue with she asseverated, and had to stop reading to get the dictionary. Sources Teaching Academic ESL Writing. Routledge, 2004Elmore Leonard, Easy on the Adverbs, Exclamation Points and Especially Hooptedoodle.  July 16, 2001

Thursday, February 13, 2020

CVP Analysis Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

CVP Analysis - Research Paper Example In order to bring a revolution in the existing business practices of the company, it is important that a new pricing strategy is devised that is based on the strategic objectives of each product individually. Furthermore, the decisions for the allocation of funds for the Research & Development (R&D) of each product should be taken individually and on annual basis to achieve the desired objectives of the product and the company. However, my strategic decision making for each year has resulted into 60% profitability in case of product X5 and 50% profitability in case of product X6. Furthermore, the increased spending on maintenance, support, enhancement and discovery for product X5 and X6 showed improved product which resulted in higher customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the discontinuation of product X7 through the four years helped in the success of the first two products. Nonetheless, a new strategy needs to be determined using contemporary strategy determining tools like Cost-Volu me-Profit (CVP) analysis. 1.1 Aim The aim of this report is to discuss the new pricing and R&D allocation strategy for the core products X5, X6 and X7 using CVP analysis and calculator. 1.2 Objectives To analyse the subsequent performance and life cycles of each product due to the difference in the decisions. To determine the new pricing decisions and R&D budget allocation strategy for each core product, namely: X5, X6 and X7 taken in 4 years (i.e. from 2012-2015). To provide rationale of the proposed strategy with theoretical support. 2 Analysis of Pricing and R&D Allocation Strategy Used in Phase 2 2.1 Penetration Pricing Strategy In order to enter into the established marketplace, Tablet Development Corp. has to undertake the penetration pricing strategy. A penetration pricing strategy is used when the company has to enter into an established marketplace and to attract the market in a substantial manner through low-pricing techniques. In the year 2012, the price of product X5 was set at the lowest possible price of $180 and it was increased by $5 every year. Similarly, the price of X6 was set at $300 only and was increased by $10 each year. The product X7 was discontinued in four years. 2.2 R&D Budget Allocation Strategy Strategic distribution of the R&D budget over the years is key to the success. Therefore, only first two R&D activities require substantial investments whereas the last two requires little investment to keep it going. The R&D budget allocation was increased for product X5 and X6 in the subsequent years whereas, product X7 was allocated less percentage of the R&D budget. The less amount shows the R&D allocations for the maintenance of product X7. 3 Determining New Strategy for Core Products of Tablet Development Corporation Apple Inc. and Microsoft have been involved in developing new products on a regular basis. In this wake they incurred fixed costs related to R&D expenditures and other costs of new product development. In order to remain competitive in the global marketplace, they adopted a new method to determine the prices and R&D allocations for multiple products on a unit cost basis (Morse, 2003). They assumed that the costs of all the products will remain fixed and thus, determine a profit or a loss situation for the new product. The